GMAT & TOEFL FAQ

GMAT (www.mba.com)

The Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) consists of four separately timed sections.

Format and Timing

The GMAT consists of four main sections—Analytical Writing Assessment, Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, and Verbal. You have three and a half hours in which to take the exam, but plan for a total time of approximately four hours to include optional breaks.

Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA)

The AWA consists of one 30-minute essay: Analysis of an Argument.
The argument presented on the test concerns topics of general interest related to business or a variety of other subjects. Specific knowledge of the essay topic is not necessary; only your capacity to write analytically is assessed.
You will be asked to analyze the reasoning behind a given argument and write a critique of that argument. You are not being asked to present your own views on the subject. Analysis of an Argument tests your ability to formulate an appropriate and constructive critique of a specific conclusion based on a specific line of thinking.

Integrated Reasoning Section

The Integrated Reasoning section of the GMAT exam measures your ability to problem solve in this area.
Integrated Reasoning consists of four question types, which require you to analyze and synthesize data in different formats and from multiple sources. This section includes 12 questions and is limited to 30 minutes.
– Almost all question formats require multiple responses. Questions are designed to measure how well you integrate data to solve complex problems, so you must answer all parts of a single question correctly to receive credit.
– All answer choices for a single question are presented on the same screen. You must submit responses to all parts of the question before moving on to a new question on another screen. Once you answer a question, you may not go back and change the answer.
– Data presented in text are approximately 300 words or fewer.
– Answer options don’t provide information or clues that will help you solve other questions.
– One set of data is used for several Multi-Source Reasoning questions, but the questions are independent of one another—you won’t have to answer one question correctly to be able to answer another.
Graphics Interpretation: Interpret the graph or graphical image and select the option from a drop-down list to make the answer statements accurate.
Two-Part Analysis: Select one answer from each column to solve a problem with a two-part solution. Possible answers will be presented in a table with a column for each part.
Table Analysis: Sort the table to organize the data so you can determine whether certain conditions are met. Each question will have statements with opposing answers (e.g., yes/no, true/false, inferable/not inferable); select one answer for each statement.
Multi-Source Reasoning: Click on the page to reveal different data and discern which data you need to answer the question.

Quantitative Section

Following an optional break, you then begin with the Quantitative Section of the GMAT exam. This section contains 37 multiple-choice questions of two question types—Data Sufficiency and Problem Solving. You are allowed a maximum of 75 minutes to complete the entire section.
The Quantitative section of the GMAT measures the ability to reason quantitatively, solve quantitative problems, and interpret graphic data.
Problem-Solving and Data-Sufficiency questions are intermingled throughout the section.

Verbal Section

After completion of the Quantitative Section (following an optional break), you begin the Verbal Section of the GMAT exam. This section contains 41 multiple choice questions of three question types—Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and Sentence Correction. You are allowed a maximum of 75 minutes to complete the entire section.
Reading Comprehension passages are up to 350 words long. Topics contain material from the social sciences, physical or biological sciences, and business-related areas (marketing, economics, human resource management, etc.).
Because the Reading Comprehension section of the GMAT exam includes passages from several different content areas, you may be generally familiar with some of the material; however, no specific knowledge of the material is required. All questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the reading material.
Reading Comprehension passages are accompanied by interpretive, applied, and inferential questions.
Reading Comprehension questions measure your ability to understand, analyze, and apply information and concepts presented in written form.
Critical Reasoning questions are designed to test the reasoning skills involved in making arguments, evaluating arguments, and formulating or evaluating a plan of action.  Questions are based on materials from a variety of sources.  No familiarity with the specific subject matter is needed.
Sentence Correction questions ask you which of the five choices best expresses an idea or relationship. The questions will require you to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written English. You must also demonstrate your ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions.

Computer-Adaptive Format

The GMAT adjusts to your individual ability level, which both shortens the time it takes to complete the exam and establishes a higher level of accuracy than a fixed test. At the start of each multiple-choice section of the exam, you are presented with a question of medium difficulty. As you answer each question, the computer scores your answer and uses it—as well as your responses to any preceding questions—to determine which question to present next. Correct responses typically prompt questions of increased difficulty. Incorrect responses generally result in questions of lesser difficulty. This process will continue until you complete the section, at which point the computer will have an accurate assessment of your ability level in that subject area. In a computer-adaptive test, only one question at a time is presented. Because the computer scores each question before selecting the next one, you may not skip, return to, or change your responses to previous questions.

How does it work?

For each multiple-choice section of the GMAT exam, there is a large pool of potential questions ranging from a low to high level of difficulty. Each section of the test starts with a question of moderate difficulty. If you answer the first question correctly, the computer will usually give you a harder question. If you answer the first question incorrectly, your next question will be easier. This process will continue until you complete the section, at which point the computer will have an accurate assessment of your ability level in that subject area.
In a computer-adaptive test, only one question at a time is presented. Because the computer scores each question before selecting the next one, you may not skip, return to, or change your responses to previous questions.

How is my score determined?

Your score is determined by:
• the number of questions you answer,
• whether you answer the questions correctly or incorrectly, and
• the level of difficulty and other statistical characteristics of each question.
The questions in an adaptive test are weighted according to their difficulty and other statistical properties, not according to their position in the test.

Your Score Report

Score reports include all your GMAT scores from tests taken in the last five (5) years. The contact and demographic information that was required for you to register for the test will also appear on your score report.
The digital photograph you provided at the test center will be sent with your score report to the score recipients you select, if those recipients have asked to receive such information. In addition, if you provided the following background information during registration or on the day of the test, it may also appear on your score report: telephone number; undergraduate institution, grade point average (GPA), major, and date of graduation; intended graduate study; and the highest level of education attained. This information is self-reported and will be marked as such.
For each of your scores on the GMAT test (Verbal, Quantitative, Total, and Analytical Writing Assessment) you will receive a percentile rank. Each rank indicates the percentage of examinees who scored below you based on the scores of the entire GMAT testing population for the most recent three-year period. Your percentile rank may change from year to year. However, your scaled score never changes.
You have the opportunity to cancel your scores at the test center on the day of your test—immediately after you complete the test, but before you can view your scores. On occasion, GMAC cancels scores because of security breaches, misconduct, or other violations by the test taker. In the interest of full disclosure and to assist schools in making informed decisions, GMAC will provide reason codes on the score report for any score that is canceled.

On June 2014 GMAC introduced a new option for cancelling the score:
Prospective business students taking the GMAT exam will now be able to preview their unofficial scores before deciding whether to report or cancel them. This score reporting feature is available to all test takers at all 600 test centers around the world that administer the GMAT exam.
As a test taker, you are given the option of reporting or canceling your scores immediately after taking the test and before leaving the test center. Under the new process, you will see your unofficial scores — Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, Verbal, and Total — and will be given two minutes to decide whether to accept them. If you do not make a choice, your scores will be canceled.
In addition, if you decide to cancel your scores at the test center, you will be able to reinstate them within 60 days of the test date for a $100 fee. After that, scores will not be retrievable.
Analytical Writing Assessment scores are unaffected by the change. They are not included on unofficial score reports available immediately but are reported on official score reports delivered within 20 days.

Total, Verbal, and Quantitative Scores

Total GMAT scores range from 200 to 800. Two-thirds of test takers score between 400 and 600.
The Verbal and Quantitative scores range from 0 to 60. Scores below 9 and above 44 for the Verbal section or below 7 and above 50 for the Quantitative section are rare. Both scores are on a fixed scale and can be compared across all GMAT test administrations. The Verbal and Quantitative scores measure different constructs and cannot be compared to each other.
Please note that, if you do not finish in the allotted time, you will still receive scores as long as you have worked on every section. However, your scores will be calculated based upon the number of questions answered, and your score will decrease significantly with each unanswered question.

Analytical Writing Assessment Score

The Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) score is an average of the ratings given to the Analysis of an Issue and the Analysis of an Argument sections. Each response is given two independent ratings. Once both essays have been scored, the scores are averaged to provide an overall score. Scores for the AWA range from 0 to 6 in half-point intervals.
Writing scores are computed separately from the multiple-choice scores and have no effect on the Verbal, Quantitative, or Total scores.

Integrated Reasoning Score

Integrated Reasoning scores range from 1 to 8 in single-digit intervals. Like the AWA, the IR scores are computed separately from the Quantitative and Verbal sections and have no effect on the Total score.
M
ost Integrated Reasoning questions require more than one response. Because the questions are designed to test your ability to integrate data to solve complex problems, you must answer all responses to a question correctly to receive credit.

How AWA Is Scored

Each of your essays in the AWA section will be given two independent ratings, one of which may be performed by an automated essay-scoring engine. The automated essay-scoring engine is an electronic system that evaluates more than 50 structural and linguistic features, including organization of ideas, syntactic variety, and topical analysis.
If the two ratings differ by more than one point, another evaluation by an expert reader is required to resolve the discrepancy and determine the final score.
College and university faculty members trained as readers for the AWA will consider the following:
• the overall quality of your ideas about the issue and argument presented
• your overall ability to organize, develop, and express those ideas
• the relevant supporting reasons and examples you used
• your ability to control the elements of standard written English
In considering the elements of standard written English, readers are trained to be sensitive and fair in evaluating the responses of examinees whose first language is not English.

When are GMAT® Scores Available?

When you schedule your GMAT appointment you will be asked to indicate if you wish to access your Official Score Report online or in the mail. Please note that you must respond to both essay prompts and work on each multiple-choice section of the test in order to obtain an Official Score Report.

Unofficial scores from the Verbal and Quantitative multiple-choice sections, along with the Total score, are available immediately after you complete the test. The Unofficial Score Report will also contain an authorization number.

If you chose to receive your Official Score Report online, you will generally receive an email within 20 calendar days of testing, with a link to access your Official Score Report online. After clicking the link you must enter the authorization number from the Unofficial Score Report to view the Official Score Report. You may view, download, or print your Official Score Report, which includes the AWA score.
If you opted to receive your Official Score Report by mail, it will be sent to you approximately 20 calendar days after testing. Please note that it may take longer than 20 calendar days for the Official Score Report to reach you due to variances in delivery time.
Programs that you select to receive your scores while at the test center will receive your Official Score Report approximately 20 calendar days after testing. If you send your scores to programs by ordering an Additional Score Report (ASR) after your testing experience, those programs will receive your scores in approximately seven (7) calendar days after your score has become reportable.

Can I cancel my score?

The GMAT exam’s Score Preview feature allows you to make the choice to report or cancel your GMAT score immediately following your sitting of the GMAT exam. That means you need to be ready to make this decision in advance before you sit down to take the GMAT.
After you complete the test, you will have the opportunity to view your score. You may choose to cancel your scores at this time.
If you cancel your scores:
–   You will not be able to view them at a later time unless you choose to reinstate your score. Fees apply.
–   You will not be eligible for a refund of any test fees.
–   The score cancellation will not be reported or otherwise indicated on all future score reports.
– The “C” that represents a candidate’s cancelled scores will not be shown on any future GMAT score reports generated by GMAC. This means that when a test taker cancels their score, only the test taker will know. This feature will be applied retroactively to all previously cancelled test scores, which will be removed from all future score reports that are sent to schools. However, score reports with cancelled scores have already been sent to schools, they can’t be modified.
–   You must wait 16 calendar days to retake the exam.

If you do NOT cancel your scores:
–   You will receive a printed copy of your unofficial report for Quantitative, Verbal, Integrated Reasoning and Total scores at the test center.
–  An Official Score Report, including the scores for the Analytical Writing Assessment, will be made available to you and your designated GMAT programs within 20 calendar days after you take the test.

Enhanced Score Report

By using the GMAT® Enhanced Score Report (ESR), you will gain control over your GMAT exam and better understand your results. Your Enhanced Score Report gives you a detailed analysis of your performance—by question type, areas for focus, and pacing—so you can hone your studies and do even better next time around. Your ESR will also guide you through your last results, providing an inside look at how you did on each section with response timing to show you which questions took you the longest to complete.
For more effective pacing and time management, your ESR makes it easy to see what sections of the test you’re spending the most time on. To pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses, the ESR gives you an in-depth breakdown by question type and section for a more complete overview of how you did on your exam.

 

Retaking the GMAT® Exam

Sometimes it is necessary or desirable to take the GMAT test more than once. For example, a graduate management program may request more recent scores than you have on record. However, unless your scores seem unusually low compared with other indicators of your preparation for graduate management study, or unless there are other reasons to believe that you did not do your best on a test for which scores have been reported, taking the GMAT test again may not be helpful.
Statistically, retesting is unlikely to result in a substantial increase in your scores; in fact, your scores may decrease. If you repeat the test, any scores for tests you have taken in the past five years will still be reported to the graduate management programs you designate as score recipients. If you repeat the test and want to resend your scores to programs that previously received your scores, you must reselect the programs at the time you take the test or order an Additional Score Report after your exam with the appropriate fee. Any repeated GMAT testing is subject to the GMAT retest policy.

How much does it cost to take the GMAT exam?

The cost to take the GMAT exam is US $250 globally.

What are the test dates for the GMAT exam?

The GMAT is available year-round and on demand, which offers test takers greater flexibility in scheduling. Available time slots change continuously based on capacity and ongoing registration.

How often can I take the GMAT exam?

You can take the GMAT once every 16 calendar days and no more than five times in a 12-month period and no more than 8 times total.

If I don’t have the AWA scores when I apply, can I leave it blank?

Some schools allow the applicant to leave the AWA blank on the application and report unofficially the rest of the score parts. The school will retrieve the AWA score from the official score report later.

If I’ve taken the GMAT exam more than once, will the score report contain all the scores?

Official Score Reports include all GMAT exams you’ve taken within the past five years. If you have taken the exam and canceled your scores, your report will note that scores are unreportable and not include what they were. Schools will usually consider your highest score.

Is there a minimum score required?

Schools usually don’t require a minimum GMAT score. You should consider the average GMAT score of students in a certain program, and the scores range, in order to evaluate your chances.

Should I already have my score when I submit my application?

Yes. You should report your score unofficially on the application, and later arrange that the official score will be sent directly to the school by the testing agency.

How important is the AWA score?

According to our experience, the weight given to the AWA is relatively low in most leading programs. A grade of 4 will usually not be a concern for the school, and in some programs it might raise a slight concern regarding the applicant’s English level.
A grade of 3.5 is borderline, and usually it will raise the school’s concern (unless you can compensate with a strong GMAT verbal score or very high TOEFL score).

Can I skip the AWA or just write gibberish?

For those unfamiliar with the AWA, it is the writing assessment portion at the beginning of the GMAT exam. As for skipping it: Please don’t. Some people are tempted to do this in an effort to shorten the exam (and enter the subsequent portions) more relaxed, but the AWA is reported on your final exams sheets. Schools can see you’ve done this, and while the degree to which they might care is arguable, it certainly isn’t a warm start. Some schools have also stated that they do read the AWA, while others have indicated they use it to compare writing samples with essays (e.g. if your essays are fabulous but you scored in the 30th percentile on verbal, they might take a look at your AWA). Just practice at home until you find yourself capable of concentrating for that long. As for writing junk, don’t do that either. Yes, it is graded by computer, but it also graded by a human (the scores are then averaged, but if they differ too much, then a second human reads and the two human scores are averaged). Bottom line: Gibberish won’t work. GMAC publishes all of the AWA topics for their essays. There is also an official tool (automated) from the GMAC that can help you evaluate your essay using the same methodology as it would on the real GMAT.

Can schools see on my score report which other schools I sent my score to?

YES!

What ID do I need to bring to the test center?

The ID must be government-issued, valid (not expired), original (no photocopies), legible and include:
– A recent, recognizable photo
– Your name in the Roman alphabet, spelled exactly as you provided when you registered
– Your signature
– Your date of birth as you provided at registration
Acceptable IDs include a driver’s license, government-issued ID, military ID, permanent resident/green card, or passport.

What if I want a score report for a GMAT exam taken over five years ago?

Score Reports from tests taken from five to 10 years ago are available, but they are sent to schools with the caveat that they should be interpreted with caution. Check with the school before requesting an old score report, because many do not accept them. Scores over a decade old are not available. If you have a score within five years, only scores from the last five years will be reported.

What if I am a citizen of one country and testing in another?

You must present a valid, unexpired passport. If you do not have proper identification, contact GMAT Customer Service in your region before your test date.

How can I prepare to take the GMAT exam?

The Graduate Management Admission Council® provides free test preparation software and preparation materials to purchase as well as suggestions about how to prepare for the exam. Most GMAT test takers start preparing about three to six months before the actual test date. Think about how you can best prepare, given your discipline, motivation, and personal preference (e.g., self-study, one-one-one tutoring, study groups, and prep courses).

What happens if I don’t finish a section of the test?

There’s a version of this question that’s a bit of a myth as well – “Leaving questions blank is better than getting them wrong”. That’s not true. In fact, the opposite is the case – you get penalized more heavily for leaving it blank than getting it wrong. In a 2007 presentation at the Test Prep Summit in NYC, GMAC showed how combined percentile rankings changed based on the number of missed items. An individual who would have scored in the 70th percentile with zero unanswered questions drops to around the 55th percentile with just five questions left unanswered! (Each missed question is worth 3 percentile points of that section’s score, not total GMAT score but that’s still a considerable set back). In other words, even if you have to guess – do it and finish the test. Also, it is recommended that you pick a random answer on the last question while you are working on it so that in case you don’t confirm it before the clock runs out, you at least “answered” the question, even if incorrectly.

How many times can someone retake the GMAT and how does it affect admission chances?

(from multiple sources)

“I don’t think there is any one universal answer, but here are a few points to consider:

(1) The average number of GMAT exams taken for accepted applicants at the Top 10 ranked MBA programs is 2.5 (and some schools have indicated that the median isn’t far from that). It seems clear that admissions officers aren’t spooked by candidates who have taken the GMAT three or more times.

(2) Nearly every admissions officer feels some MBA rankings pressure, and average GMAT scores are an important criterion in most of the respected surveys. If an applicant can improve her score by 30 or more points, she can improve her chances significantly at top MBA programs. The cost/benefit is particularly favorable for candidates applying to top schools with a GMAT score in the 640-700 range. The difference between a 740 and 770 is negligible, but moving from a 670 to 700 is meaningful. That is a big percentage increase, and it moves a candidate from the bottom quartile of accepted applicants at top schools, squarely into the middle of the pack.

(3) Low quant scores can cripple an otherwise competitive candidacy. If an applicant earned a decent overall score, but a low section score (particularly in quant), I almost always recommend re-taking the GMAT. This is especially true for candidates with “softer” backgrounds.

(4) It seems admissions officers are particularly forgiving of international applicants who take the GMAT multiple times. One of my Japanese classmates at Yale took the GMAT eleven (!) times before submitting a score he liked. It’s anecdotal, but it seems that those stories are more common among international applicants.

Caveat: not everyone improves the next time around! If one of your students is re-taking the GMAT to shore up a low section score, be sure to remind him to devote some of his preparation time to the other section, too. If he improves his quant score but his verbal declines, he hasn’t helped his candidacy very much.“

(5) GMAC has stated that roughly 20% of test takers are repeat candidates, so don’t fret if you have to retake the GMAT – you are not alone. There are many people who take it twice or three times, and I’ve even known a few who hit five. As a rule of thumb, the generally accepted ‘maximum’ is four times. Again, I come back to the prior point, if you think you can substantially raise your score then it’s likely worth retaking. A word of warning however, I would not recommend simply taking the exam four times on the ‘off chance’ you happen to improve. This isn’t like flipping coins. There are diminishing marginal returns to each attempt and at some point, it starts to look like you don’t have ‘big picture’ skills. A final note: Unlike the SATs, schools will see all scores in your score report, so it is not a good idea to just go in and ‘wing it’ hoping for a good score.

Is the quant score matter more than the verbal score?

It depends a bit on what one means by “matters”. If the question is whether or not quant is more or less predictive of your expected performance in graduate school programs, the literature is mixed. Virtually any study conducted in the last twenty years agrees that undergraduate GPA and total GMAT score are predictive of overall MBA performance, but at least one study suggested that the verbal score, not a quant score, better differentiates high performers. Odds are however, most people really mean to ask whether or not one is weighted more heavily in the application decision process. Although Admissions offices typically respond to such queries with poetic yarns about “holistic” approaches and “no cutoffs”, there’s at least some anecdotal evidence that there is such a bias. There is however some truth to the other side of the coin as well – there are no “hard” cutoffs. By themselves GMAT scores just don’t tell enough of a story. A weak quant score can be mitigated by any number of other factors: A strong undergraduate performance in math intensive courses, a high mathematical job, a strong alternative transcript, etc. It is this combination that truly provides more of a picture of where a candidate falls. The bottom line is that you should evaluate your GMAT score in conjunction with the rest of your application, because, quite simply, so will admissions.

IS A 40Q/40V SPLIT OR AN 80TH PERCENTILE MINIMUM (IN BOTH SECTIONS) A MUST FOR TOP SCHOOLS?

Similar to the pseudo-truth that quant scores are more important than verbal, this claim tends to live on. Those of you who have had too many cups of coffee may have noticed that a 40Q/40V split isn’t even – a 40Q is roughly 60th percentile while a 40V is closer to the 90th. Setting aside the fact that people who call this an even split are just flat out wrong, let’s address the myth that there’s some magical “balanced” score at the 80th percentile. The short answer is that there is no such mythical “balanced score”, but any particularly weak performances (<60%) in either of the sections are likely to invite some scrutiny. The importance of the “imbalance” is only meaningful in the context of the rest of an application. A weak verbal score is mitigated by strong essays, a quality interview, etc. Similarly, a weak math score is mitigated by alternative transcripts, undergraduate coursework, etc. Keep in mind that an imbalanced score doesn’t mean a “bad” score – a 99th percentile in the verbal section and an 80th in the math will still combine to a 700+ score – while both the verbal and math raw scores are respectable. In other words, focus not on the relative difference (the spread between the two areas) but rather on each section’s individual performance.

I’VE HEARD THE FIRST TEN QUESTIONS MATTER MORE THAN THE OTHERS, TRUE?

NO. This is a myth that needs to be eradicated. GMAC themselves has indicated that this is a myth. Finally, consider the logic behind the arguments that the first ten matter more. The argument usually goes something like this: “If Bob and Mary both start with a 600, and Bob gets the first three right, then Bob will have a 650.If Mary gets the first three wrong she will have a 550. Now Mary has dug herself into a hole and she’ll have to fight to get out – she needs to get six right in a row to get to 650! Bob just needs to keep cruising along getting one or two right and one or two wrong and he’s done!” The problems should be obvious. First, why would Mary be any less likely to get six right in a row than Bob would be to get six wrong? If anything, isn’t Bob more likely to get six wrong simply because Bob is getting harder questions? Couldn’t Mary get to 650 by also getting a few right and a few wrong? Doesn’t the above argument essentially hinge on the idea that Bob is penalized less for wrong answers than Mary is, or that Mary somehow doesn’t have enough ‘time’ to catch up?

SHOULD I RETAKE THE GMAT?

This question is posed an awful lot and invariably the concern goes something like this: “I just finished my 2nd attempt at the GMAT and scored a 620 with a split of 32/34. I want to apply to Chicago, Stanford and Cornell – should I retake?” The answer to the question, as you may have guessed, isn’t as simple as a yes or a no. It depends on a variety of factors, all of which, fortunately, you can do a pretty good job of assessing yourself. First, there’s the question of time commitment, effort and opportunity cost. What will you give up by taking the exam? If you believe you can score better with minimal effort, then presumably, you only lose money by re-attempting. However, more often than not, improving your score will either require substantial effort or the exam timeline will overlap with the same period in which applications are due. The risk is that you overextend yourself into both GMAT studies and preparing applications – and rather than doing an excellent job on both, you do a so-so job on both. Unfortunately, a mediocre GMAT score combined with a mediocre set of essays won’t get you far. The first question therefore that you should ask yourself is: Do I have the time? The second question, very much related to the first, is one of return on investment. How likely are you to improve? GMAC conducted a survey of almost 30,000 applicants (of which 18% retook the exam) and found that, on average, individuals improved 31 points. That sounds pretty good, but the standard deviation was 56 – so no guarantees! In fact, 30% of test takers did worse on the retake (20% reducing their score by up to 40 points, and 10% by more than 40). However, 30% also increased their score 10 to 40 points, 30% increased by 50 to 90, and 10% increased their score by an astounding 100 or more!

Can I apply without GMAT score?

Several programs offer GMAT waiver.

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TOEFL (http://www.ets.org/toefl/)

The test of English as a foreign language is required by most programs for applicants whose native language is not English. There are some cases where the TOEFL requirement may be waived (for example, if the applicant received a degree from an institution whose official language of instruction is English) – check the school website or the school page on Aringo website (click on the school name and go to the bottom to see TOEFL requirements).

The TOEFL® test measures the ability of non-native English speakers to use and understand the English language as it is heard, spoken, read and written in the university classroom.

The TOEFL test is offered in two formats: the TOEFL iBT™, administered in an Internet-based format, and the TOEFL PBT, administered in a Paper-based format. The format you take depends on your testing location. Test centers that do not have Internet access offer the TOEFL PBT test.
• The TOEFL iBT test measures reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. It is offered 30 to 40 times a year, and is administered online via computer at more than 4,500 testing sites in 165 countries. Most test takers take the TOEFL iBT test.
• The TOEFL PBT test measures reading, listening, grammar and writing skills and is offered six times a year in areas where Internet-based testing is not available.

Do I have a choice of which format to take?

The format of the test depends on your testing location, the capabilities of the testing center and any accommodations required for special needs.

When can I register for the test?

Seats fill up quickly, so register early. We recommend that you register three to four months before your desired test date to reserve your seat. Your test date should be two to three months before your earliest admissions application deadline.

Can I take the test in one day?

Yes, the test is given in one day. The test takes about 4 hours, but with check-in you should plan to be at the test site for at least 4.5 hours.

Can I retake the test?

Yes, you can retake the test as many times as you wish. There is no passing or failing test score — score requirements are set by each higher education institution or agency.

What Does the TOEFL iBT Test Cost?

The cost of the test can range from $160 to $250 and varies between countries.

What are TOEFL test scores like?

Your scores are based on your performance on the questions in the test. You must answer at least one question each in the Reading and Listening sections, write at least one essay, and complete at least one Speaking task to receive an official score. For the Internet-based test, you will receive four scaled section scores and a total score:
• Reading Section (Score of: 0 – 30)
• Listening Section (Score of: 0 – 30)
• Speaking Section (Score of: 0 – 30)
• Writing Section (Score of: 0 – 30)
• Total Score (0 – 120)

In addition to your scores, your official score record also includes performance feedback that is a reflection of your performance level and a description of the kinds of tasks that test takers within the reported score range can typically do.

There is no passing or failing TOEFL score; individual higher education institutions and agencies set their own score requirements. TOEFL scores are valid for two years after the test date and there is no limit to the number of times you can take the test.

When should I start preparing for the test?

Start preparing for the test at least eight weeks before your test date.

What is the best way to prepare for the TOEFL test?

Practicing your reading, listening, speaking and writing skills as much as possible will help you feel prepared and confident on test day.

When do I take the test?

Plan to take the TOEFL test two to three months before your earliest application deadline so your scores arrive at your institutions in time. Find application deadlines by checking the institution’s website.

What is the Reading section like?

The Reading section includes three to five reading passages. There are 12 to 14 questions per passage. You have from 60 to 100 minutes to answer all the questions in the section.
TOEFL iBT Reading passages are excerpts from university-level textbooks that would be used in introductions to a discipline or topic. The passages will cover a variety of different subjects. Don’t worry if you’re unfamiliar with the topic of a passage. All the information you need to answer the questions will be in the passage.

What is the Listening section like?

The Listening section includes test questions about academic lectures and long conversations in which the speech sounds very natural. You can take notes on any listening material throughout the entire test. The test is composed of:

Four to six lectures, each three to five minutes long, six questions per lecture, 60 to 90 minutes
Two to three conversations, each three minutes long, five questions per conversation, 60 to 90 minutes

What is the Speaking section like?

The Speaking section is approximately 20 minutes long and includes six questions.

The first two questions are called “independent Speaking tasks” because they require you to draw entirely on your own ideas, opinions and experiences when you respond.
The other four questions are called “integrated Speaking tasks” because they require you to integrate your English-language skills — listening and speaking or listening, reading and speaking — just as you would in or out of a classroom.

You will speak into the microphone on your headset and your responses will be recorded and sent to the ETS Scoring Network, where they will be scored by certified human raters.

What is the Writing section like?

The total time for the Writing section is 50 minutes. You are asked to write responses to two writing tasks: an integrated Writing task and an independent Writing task.

Integrated Writing task (20 minutes) — read a short passage and listen to a short lecture. Then write in response to what you read and listened to.
Independent Task (30 minutes) — write an essay in response to a Writing topic.

What do I need to bring on test day?

There are only two important things you need to bring with you on test day:

An acceptable, valid ID with your name, recent photo and signature. Requirements for a valid ID vary; see identification requirements for more details.
Your registration confirmation, including your registration number.

How many score reports are included in my test fee?

Your test fee includes:
• one examinee score report for you
• up to four official score reports to the destinations (institutions or agencies) selected when you register; ETS will send the official score reports directly to these destinations

What is on my score report?

Your examinee score report includes scores for each test section, a total score and performance feedback about what test takers typically achieve at your score level.

Can I order additional official score reports?

Yes, you can order additional score reports after your scores are available online, approximately two weeks after the test date.

How and when do I get my scores?

Scores will be posted online within two weeks of the test date. Log in to your online TOEFL iBT account, enter the ETS ID received when you registered and click on the “View Scores” link. Your scores are also mailed to the universities or institutions you selected when you registered. A score report posting schedule for each test administration is available on the TOEFL iBT test site. Allow 7 – 10 days for mail delivery in the United States and more than four weeks for other areas. We recommend that you take the test two to three months before your earliest application deadline.

How soon do score recipients get my scores?

Score reports are sent electronically or mailed to recipients two weeks after the test date.

How long are scores valid?

ETS reports scores for two years after the test date.

Will score recipients accept scores from previous tests?

Check with each score recipient directly.

Does the TOEFL test have cumulative score reporting?

No. TOEFL score reports include scores for only the last test taken.

Is there a minimum score required?

Some programs require a minimum TOEFL score (check the school website or the school page on Aringo website – click on the school name and go to the bottom to see TOEFL requirements). For example:

Stanford – require minimum IBT score of 100
Harvard – 109
Chicago – 104
Berkeley – 68
INSEAD – 105
UCLA – 87
Queen’s – 100
Cambridge – 110
IESE – 100
Cornell – 100

Are there any substitutes for the TOEFL?

Yes – there are other English tests which some programs accept as a substitute for the TOEFL – PTE, IELTS, TOEIC.

Should I already have my score when I submit my application?

Yes. You should report your score unofficially on the application, and later arrange that the official score will be sent directly to the school by the testing agency.

Are there programs which don’t require the test?

Yes, for example – MIT Sloan, Yale, IMD, RSM. More details here.

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